group debate – Pay gap between men and women starts right out of the gate

This is a group debate. I’m in team ‘against’. My job is in conclusion part. I need the speech for concluding the following 3 claims from my teammates:

Claim1:
Corporations have no moral responsibility. Morality is an individualistic philosophical debate in which the action of an individual is faulted, therefore this cannot imply to a corporation. DISCUSSION: we want to define and discuss what it means to be morally responsible, why this term cannot be applied to a corporation, and finally, what is the responsibility of a corporation (1. Profit and 2. Obey the Law)

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Katie J. Hughes and Laura Batten from the Department of Psychology, University of Southampton, United Kingdom state – Moral responsibility implies a knowledge and understanding of ‘right’ and ‘wrong’ and the ability and willingness to behave morally.
A corporation is an artificial person without a moral conscience.
“It is improper to expect organizational conduct to conform to the ordinary principles of morality,” he says. “We cannot and must not expect formal organizations, or their representatives acting in their official capacities, to be honest, courageous, considerate, sympathetic, or to have any kind of moral integrity. Such concepts are not in the vocabulary, so to speak, of the organizational language game.”

A corporation only has artificial responsibilities; its responsibility is profit.
•The Disparate View – Business as a distinct entity, separate from society and nature. Moral responsibility is defined as “DEFINITION” by SOURCE. It is misguided to presume therefore that corporations have the ability to exercise individualistic moral responsibility. Such Additionally, corporations exist through the disparate view in that they are separate from society and nature.

The responsibilities of ordinary persons and of “artificial persons” like corporations are, in his view, separate. Persons’ responsibilities go beyond those of corporations. Persons, he seems to have believed, ought to care not only about themselves but also about the dignity and well-being of those around them—ought not only to care but also to act. Organizations, he evidently thought, are creatures of, and to a degree prisoners of, the systems of economic incentive and political sanction that give them reality and therefore should not be expected to display the same moral attributes that we expect of persons.

Claim2:
The gender wage gap is a legislative issue to be addressed by the Government.
DISCUSSION: we want to shift the burden of responsibility being on a corporation to proactively address the gender wage gap and instead propose that it is a legislative issue to be addressed by the government.
The outcry for many years was that women were suffering gender discrimination in the workforce by being paid less than men for equal work. While this began as a social and economic issue, in order to implement changes within the workplace, the Government of Canada intervened, thus making it a legislative issue. It would be the judicial system which would create new employment legislature through the Ontario’s Human Rights Code which states that it “protects people in Ontario from employment discrimination because of race, ancestry, place of origin, colour, ethnic origin, citizenship, creed, sex, sexual orientation, gender identity, gender expression, disability, age, marital status, family status and record of offences” (Ontario, 2019). As we previously discussed corporations adhere to two responsibilities; to make a profit and to obey the law. It follows that the ubiquitous and persistent wage gap between men and women in the workplace is a matter which should be revisited by legislation to either enforce stiffer penalties for this issue or to address certain limitations within the law which should be amended.

We call on Premier Wynne to develop a province wide plan to close the gender pay gap by 2025, much like the government plans under the Accessibility for Ontarians with Disabilities Act. Too much harm will be done if the government continues to fail to plan and act to close the gap,” says Cornish. The Coalition’s first called for the government to develop such a plan in 2008, the Pay Equity Act’s 20th anniversary.
“While Ontario is marking the official Ontario Equal Pay Day today by holding a closed door dialogue, other countries take public action. For example, President Obama issued an order on US Equal Pay Day requiring federal contractors to provide pay data by sex and race to reveal if any discrimination with taxpayer dollars. The EU required its member states to mandate employers to make their pay policies transparent.

“As individuals we can exercise what influence we may have as citizens,” James Weston said, “but for a corporation to attempt to exert any kind of economic compulsion to achieve a particular end in a social area seems to me to be quite beyond what a corporation should do and quite beyond what a corporation can do. I believe that while government may seek to compel social reforms, any attempt by a private organization like SSC to impose its views, its beliefs, and its will upon the community would be repugnant to our American constitutional concepts and that appropriate steps to correct this abuse of corporate power would be universally demanded by public opinion.”

Claim3:
The gender wage gap exists as a result of the choices women make in regards to their educational, professional and personal lives.
DISCUSSION:
Moreover, men and women’s participation in the labour force differ greatly. In an article titled “Equal Pay legislation and the Gender Wage Gap”, distinguished Professor of Labor Economics at Bingham University, Solomon W. Polachek, points out that “in 1970 the US married men’s labor force participation rate was 86.1% while married women was 40.5%. Most recently, in 2018; the labor force participation rate for married men was 72.9%, whereas for married women it was 58.2%”. This stark difference of 45.6% and 14.7% in both 1970 and 2018 between the presence of men and women in the workforce implies that this disparity continues presently. One such factor to explain this is that women continue to bare the greatest responsibility when it comes to caring for an elderly relative and/or child declares Senior Scientist Dr. Peter Smith of the Institute for Work & Health in Canada. According to a study published in April 2019 in The Journals of Gerontology, Smith and his team looked at the Statistics Canada Labour Force Survey responses from 1997 to 2015 of over 5.8 million working people. This study revealed that women compared to men are:
-73 per cent more likely to permanently leave work,
-five times more likely to be working part-time,
-twice as likely to take time off during a work week.
Even when taking into consideration work factors such as similar jobs, unionization, size of workplace and personal factors such as marital status and number of children.
Another factor to consider is that childcare challenges have become a barrier to work for mothers, who disproportionately take on unpaid caregiving responsibilities when their family cannot find or afford childcare. In a 2018 survey conducted by the Center for American Progress, mothers were 40% more likely than fathers to feel the negative impact of childcare issues on their careers, stating Too often, mothers must make job decisions based on childcare considerations rather than in the interest of their financial situation or career goals.
The following evidence presented therefore suggests that women who exit the workforce more regularly for family and personal reasons therefore jeopardizes their salary. However, men who forego exiting the workforce tend to contribute a higher level of productivity within a corporation which is reflected in their salary. We can clearly see then that the wage is warranted to the respective genders based on both their presence and level of output in the workforce. As a result, It is not in the best interest of corporations to proactively address the disparity in the wage gap because it directly reflects the choices of both men and women in the workplace.

When concluding, please expand on the 5 concepts: precision, accuracy, sufficiency, authority and representativeness.

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