Use the SPSS data set called Chapter 10_Problem_1_Data (see link below) for this activity.
In the data set provided, smoking status is coded as 1 = never smoked, 2 = past smoker, and 3 = current smoker. Research suggests that both maternal smoking history (nominal, or categorical) and maternal BMI (continuous) are associated with the delivery of a low-birth weight infant (continuous). In an ANCOVA analysis, we consider smoking history and BMI to be independent variables (IV) and infant birth weight to be the dependent variable (DV). Use the data to:
Determine whether the two continuous variables, maternal BMI (IV) and infant birth weight (DV), are correlated with each other. Why is this information important?
Determine whether the assumption of homogeneity of regression is met such that ANCOVA can be used. For this, test the interaction effect between the two IV’s (a factor and a covariate).
Interpret results of the ANCOVA, which assesses whether the mean birth weight (the DV) differs by maternal smoking status (the IV) after taking maternal BMI (the covariate) into account.
Answer the following questions after reading Mayland, Williams, Addington-Hall, Cox, & Ellershaw (2014) published in Journal of Pain and Symptom Management (link located below):
1) What type of analysis was conducted in this study to examine group differences? What three groups were analyzed for differences?
2) What did the researcher set the level of significance, or alpha (α), at for this study? What is the potential for Type I error with this level of alpha?
3) State the null hypothesis for communication for the three groups. Should this null hypothesis be accepted or rejected? Provide a rationale for your answer.
4) What is the purpose of conducting post hoc analysis? What type of post hoc test was conducted in this study?
5) Identify the post hoc results for communication on Table 2. Which results are statistically significant? What do these results mean?
6) What variable on Table 2 has the result F=60.4 (p < 0.0001) What does this result mean?
7) Mayland et al. (2014) reported means, standard deviation, and a range on Table 2 and Table 3. In your opinion, is this information helpful? Provide a rationale for your answer.
8) What is the F for spiritual need – next of kin? In this result statistically significant? Provide a rationale for your answer.
9) What are the post hoc results for spiritual need – next of kin? Which results are statistically significant? What do these results mean?
10) Mayland et al. (2014) chose the dying patients’ next of kin rather than the patients themselves as study participants to assess end of life care. In your opinion, was this an appropriate choice?
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