Week 7 Discussion:


Overview:
In this module, we are going to understand water in atmosphere and how it is related to various atmosphere phenomenon such as clouds and rain.

Please use GEOG 3 Module 4 Understand Humidity and Stability Study Questions.docx

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Actions to guide yourself in the learning process. In other words, you will need be able to answer those questions to prepare for the quiz. I suggest you to keep the questions in mind while watching the videos, read lecture presentation and textbook chapters.
Topics:
Phase change of water and latent heat

 

What are the three phases of water, and how they are different in terms of “hydrogen bond”?
How is the absorption/release of latent heat related to the phase change of water?
Hydrologic Cycle

 

How much water in atmosphere? In what phases?
What is the hydrologic cycle? (here is another video walking you through the cycle: https://youtu.be/CJBzFAg9ovU)
Use the concept of hydrologic cycle to explain where the water in atmosphere come from and where they go.
Measurement of water in atmosphere

How to measure the absolute amount of water vapor in atmosphere? Define specific humidity, mixing ratio, and vapor pressure.
What does maximum specific humidity (MSH)/Saturated Mixing Ration/Saturated Vapor Pressure measure? How are they related to air temperature?

 

What is Relative Humidity (RH)? What are the two ways to make RH = 100%?
What is Dew Point Temperature?
An experiment:

 

Expained:

 

How to measure Relative Humidity? How to use a Sling Psychorometer?
Explained

 

Demonstration:

 

 

Air stability:

Adiabatic Process:

Air Stability:

Clouds

What is condensation? What is evaporation? What are requirements for condensation and evaporation to happen?

How does cloud form? Describe the process of cloud formation.
Short Explanation:

 

A more detailed version:

 

Identify cloud types by shape

Precipitation

How does precipitation happen in a warm cloud? Describe the coalescence process.
How does precipitation happen in a cold cloud? Describe the ice-crystal process.

 

Goal:
Summarize what you have learned in Week 7
Build learning community by helping each other answer study questions.
Initial Post
You are REQUIRED to post a thorough summary with the following two components:

Summarize what you have learned on the following concepts. Please make sure to answer ALL the questions listed under each concept (6 points) (You can find all the answers in Chp 4 and lecture presentation)
Hydrologic cycle and Atmospheric Humidity
What is the hydrologic cycle? Discribe how a water droplet travels from ocean, to atmosphere, to rain water, to stream water, to soil and underground water, to plants, to atmosphere, and finally back to ocean?
Basically, how do the three states of water differ?
How is the capacity of air holding water vapor related to air temperature?
What is the dew-point temperature?
Define specific humidity, maximum specific humidity and relative humidity.
How to measure air humidity using a sling psychrometer?
Evaporation and Condensation
Explain why condensation occurs primarily when the air is cooled.
What are the primary factors that influence evaporation?
At least ONE question you have when studying the concepts and questions listed above (2 points)
Reply to Peers
Browse the questions posted by your classmates and help answer at least ONE of your classmates answer the question(s) he/she has (2 points)↓

 

Hydrologic cycle and Atmospheric Humidity

What is the hydrologic cycle? Describe how a water droplet travels from ocean, to atmosphere, to rain water, to stream water, to soil and underground water, to plants, to atmosphere, and finally back to ocean? Basically, how do the three states of water differ? How is the capacity of air holding water vapor related to air temperature? What is the dew-point temperature? Define specific humidity, maximum specific humidity and relative humidity. How to measure air humidity using a sling psychrometer?

The hydrologic cycle, known as the water cycle is the movement of water circulating from oceans into earths atmosphere, and repeating the cycle. Water droplets which is called precipitation fall onto earths surface into the ocean. To travel into the atmosphere condensation happens which is water evaporating back into the atmosphere. When in the atmosphere clouds form causing precipitation which is rain falling into the surface again. Stream flow is rain water falling into lakes and streams, snow that melts as well can fall into the stream. Infiltration is water going into the soil causing an underground water flow which the plants will uptake to keep themselves moist, and the remaining water flows back into the ocean once again causing precipitation and the rain falls back into the ocean. Water vapor molecules in the form of a gas moves in any direction. In this the gas is allowed to mix with other molecules and atoms. In the form of a liquid the water molecules are close together consistently bumping into each other. As a solid the vapor molecules are tightly packed unable to move free. The capacity of air that water vapor can hold is related to air temperature. To hold a high amount of water vapor, the air needs to be warm. In colder conditions, air holds less water vapor, turning an amount into a liquid. The dew point is the decreases air temperature that can make air saturated, the temperature at which air becomes saturated is called dew point temperature. Specific humidity is the mass of water vapor in the air per unit mass of air. Maximum specific humidity is a component to measure how saturated the air is, which tells us the maximum water vapor air containment of saturation. Relative Humidity is measuring how saturated the air, by comparing the absolute amount of water air, which is holding the amount of water vapor air having a maximum hold. To measure air humidity using a sling psychrometer would require two thermometers, td which is a dry bulb temperature, and tw which is wet bulb temperature.

 

 

Evaporation and Condensation

Explain why condensation occurs primarily when the air is cooled. What are the primary factors that influence evaporation?

Condensation is water vapor molecules condensing into condensation nuclei. Condensation occurs when the air is cooled because the molecules move slow, sticking to one another condensing to the nuclei. Evaporation occurs when water molecules are leaving water surfaces. The primary factors that influence evaporation is the temperature of water, the warmer the water, the higher rate of evaporation. Wind speed enhances the process of evaporation. Lastly, the moisture of air above the surface needs to be dry for a greater chance of evaporation. Heat energy in evaporation needs to break the hydrogen bond thats turning into a gas. In this process the air is not saturated.

 

Question: Does precipitation have an effect on air pressure?
Requirements and Grading
Please read carefully Discussion Guidelines before posting to make sure your posts meet the requirements.
You initial post is due on Friday (Oct 16th) by 11:59pm and your reponse to peers is due on Sunday (Oct 18th) at 11:59pm.
Your posts will be graded using the discussion rubric. You can also click on the three dots at upper-right and choose “Show Rubric”.

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