Risk Factors in Obesity

Obesity is a global health problem. Obesity contributes to the increased prevalence of other chronic diseases, including type 2 diabetes and coronary heart diseases, which are the leading causes of mortality and morbidity in the U.S. Despite our preoccupation with body image and weight loss, the prevalence of overweight and obesity in the United States continues to rise dramatically. In the past two decades, obesity increased in every state, in both genders, and across all ages, races, and educational levels. An estimated 66 percent of the adults in the United States are now considered overweight or obese. The prevalence of overweight among children in the United States has also risen at an alarming rate. An estimated 33 percent of children and adolescents aged 2 to 19 years are either overweight or obese.

Nutrition is the major thing in causing disease. All food contains calories, or units of energy, we need to survive. But Americans, on average, consume many more calories than their bodies require.60 or 70% of people are dying of heart failure. Good nutrition and exercise are key parts of a healthy lifestyle and can help to break the trend of obesity in this country. Maintaining a healthy body can also keep the mind healthy. Research has shown that exercise can relieve stress in addition to its other benefits.

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Each person must choose 4 of the 10 topics/risk factors on obesity (listed below)

·

· Reports should be written as a review article format which includes:
An introduction/what is known

· Application/what has been done

· Future direction/needs

· Conclusive remarks

· Reports should include

· 8 pages of content–2 pages per topic/risk factor (1.5-line space, 12 font size)

· 1 page of references/citations (APA or MLA is fine)

· Reports should include tables, charts and graphs that are original student creations (please include a legend for each graphic).

· You must use proper citation

Risk factors in obesity (choose 4):

1. Family lifestyle. Obesity tends to run in families. If one or both of your parents are obese, your risk of being obese is increased. That’s not just because of genetics. Family members tend to share similar eating and activity habits.

2. Inactivity. If you’re not very active, you don’t burn as many calories. With a sedentary lifestyle, you can easily take in more calories every day than you burn through exercise and routine daily activities. Having medical problems, such as arthritis, can lead to decreased activity, which contributes to weight gain.

3. Unhealthy diet. A diet that’s high in calories, lacking in fruits and vegetables, full of fast food, and laden with high-calorie beverages and oversized portions contributes to weight gain.

4. Medical problems. In some people, obesity can be traced to a medical cause, such as Prader-Willi syndrome, Cushing’s syndrome and other conditions. Medical problems, such as arthritis, also can lead to decreased activity, which may result in weight gain.

5. Certain medications. Some medications can lead to weight gain if you don’t compensate through diet or activity. These medications include some antidepressants, anti-seizure medications, diabetes medications, antipsychotic medications, steroids and beta blockers.

6. Social and economic issues. Research has linked social and economic factors to obesity. Avoiding obesity is difficult if you don’t have safe areas to exercise. Similarly, you may not have been taught healthy ways of cooking, or you may not have money to buy healthier foods. In addition, the people you spend time with may influence your weight — you’re more likely to become obese if you have obese friends or relatives.

7. Age. Obesity can occur at any age, even in young children. But as you age, hormonal changes and a less active lifestyle increase your risk of obesity. In addition, the amount of muscle in your body tends to decrease with age. This lower muscle mass leads to a decrease in metabolism. These changes also reduce calorie needs and can make it harder to keep off excess weight. If you don’t consciously control what you eat and become more physically active as you age, you’ll likely gain weight.

8. Pregnancy. During pregnancy, a woman’s weight necessarily increases. Some women find this weight difficult to lose after the baby is born. This weight gain may contribute to the development of obesity in women.

9. Quitting smoking. Quitting smoking is often associated with weight gain. And for some, it can lead to enough weight gain that the person becomes obese. In the long run, however, quitting smoking is still a greater benefit to your health than continuing to smoke.

10. Lack of sleep. Not getting enough sleep or getting too much sleep can cause changes in hormones that increase your appetite. You may also crave foods high in calories and carbohydrates, which can contribute to weight gain.

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