You are a primatologist in the field studying your favorite primate species. Write an essay

Essays should be preceded with a cover page that includes (at least) the
following:
the course
code
,
your name, your s
tudent number, the essay title
,
and
the
instructor’s name
.
This cover page does not count towards the page or word limit. The
acceptable length for essays in this course is
6

10 full pages, including
everything
apart
from the cover page (e.g., references, tables, figures, etc.)
. 5% will be deducted for each
page or part thereof under 6 pages or over 10 pages. All essays must be
typed or word

processed,
double

spaced with 1” margins and 12
pt. Times New Roman
or Calibri
font
.
All
parts of the essay, including references, tables, and fi
g
ure legends must be double

spaced.
Content:
Your essay should include clearly demarcated
Introduction
and
Conclusions
sections. As noted on the Essay Evaluation Guide, a percen
tage of your grade will be based
directly on the content in these sections. The use of other subheadings is at your discretion
,
though is strongly advised
. Subheadings can be a good way of clarifying the structure of your
essay for both you and the reader.
If you choose to use figures or tables, you must refer to
them in your text and they must help make your arguments, they are not to be used to fill up
space.
References:
EVERYTHING YOU GET F
ROM ANYWHERE MUST AL
WAYS BE
REFERENCED!!!
Talk to your profes
sor
if you aren’t sure what this means
. References
should be cited in the text by giving the name(s) of the author
(s)
and year at the end of the
section the reference applies to. If a paper has more than two authors, cite it by the first
author name and th
en “et al.”
Page numbers should not be given unless you are referencing a
direct
quotation.
For papers with more than two authors, the names of all authors must be
given in the references cited section.
For example:
The ear morphology of
Ignacius gray
bullianus
is supportive of a close relationship to
euprimates, rather than dermopterans (Bloch and Silcox, 2001).
Chronolestes simul
is best considered a basal plesiadapoid, not a crown group carpolestid
(Silcox et al., 2001).
In the case of a quotation
, the reference should be placed at the end of the quotation,
with the addition of the relevant page numbers. For example:
“The simple presence of an entotympanic is also unlikely to be a synapomorphy linking
dermopterans and paromomyids to the exclusion
of other archontans.” (Bloch and Silcox,
2001, p. 191)
Figures must be referenced by giving the figure number in the original publication. For
example: (Bloch and Silcox, 2001: fig. 1).
Essays should be preceded with a cover page that includes (at least) the
following:
the course
code
,
your name, your s
tudent number, the essay title
,
and
the
instructor’s name
.
This cover page does not count towards the page or word limit. The
acceptable length for essays in this course is
6

10 full pages, including
everything
apart
from the cover page (e.g., references, tables, figures, etc.)
. 5% will be deducted for each
page or part thereof under 6 pages or over 10 pages. All essays must be
typed or word

processed,
double

spaced with 1” margins and 12
pt. Times New Roman
or Calibri
font
.
All
parts of the essay, including references, tables, and fi
g
ure legends must be double

spaced.
Content:
Your essay should include clearly demarcated
Introduction
and
Conclusions
sections. As noted on the Essay Evaluation Guide, a percen
tage of your grade will be based
directly on the content in these sections. The use of other subheadings is at your discretion
,
though is strongly advised
. Subheadings can be a good way of clarifying the structure of your
essay for both you and the reader.
If you choose to use figures or tables, you must refer to
them in your text and they must help make your arguments, they are not to be used to fill up
space.
References:
EVERYTHING YOU GET F
ROM ANYWHERE MUST AL
WAYS BE
REFERENCED!!!
Talk to your profes
sor
if you aren’t sure what this means
. References
should be cited in the text by giving the name(s) of the author
(s)
and year at the end of the
section the reference applies to. If a paper has more than two authors, cite it by the first
author name and th
en “et al.”
Page numbers should not be given unless you are referencing a
direct
quotation.
For papers with more than two authors, the names of all authors must be
given in the references cited section.
For example:
The ear morphology of
Ignacius gray
bullianus
is supportive of a close relationship to
euprimates, rather than dermopterans (Bloch and Silcox, 2001).
Chronolestes simul
is best considered a basal plesiadapoid, not a crown group carpolestid
(Silcox et al., 2001).
In the case of a quotation
, the reference should be placed at the end of the quotation,
with the addition of the relevant page numbers. For example:
“The simple presence of an entotympanic is also unlikely to be a synapomorphy linking
dermopterans and paromomyids to the exclusion
of other archontans.” (Bloch and Silcox,
2001, p. 191)
Figures must be referenced by giving the figure number in the original publication. For
example: (Bloch and Silcox, 2001: fig. 1).
2
You may use web pages, however, be aware
that
these are not peer

reviewed and
a
reliance on web pages will result in a lower mark.
Web pages should be referenced similarly,
but including the author of the webpage (if provided), the date the page was most recently
updated (if provided), and the name o
f the webpage. For example:
All mammals have hair at some point in their development (Myers, Class Mammalia, Animal
Diversity Web).
DO NOT USE FOOTNOTES OR ENDNOTES

USE OF THESE REFERENCING
METHODS WILL BE PENALIZED.
Your paper must include a section
entitled “References Cited”, which should include
all the sources referenced in your essay, listed in alphabetical order by the first letter of the
first authors’ last name. Do not number the references listed in this section
or use
abbreviations such as “
ibid”
. Do not include papers unless they are explicitly referenced in
the text. Follow these examples as to how references should be formatted in your References
Cited section.
Marks will be deducted for deviations from these styles
.
An article from a jou
rnal
:
Selig,
K.R.,
Sargis,
E.J.,
and
Silcox
, M.T
. 2019. Three

d
imensional
g
eometric
m
orphometric
a
nalysis of
t
reeshrew (Scandentia)
l
ower
m
olars: Insight into dental variation and
systematics. The Anatomical Record 302: 1154

1168.
A book:
Pough, F.H., Jani
s, C.M and Heiser, J.B. 2013. Vertebrate Life.
San Francisco, CA: Pearson
Education, Inc.
An article in an edited volume:
Oates, J.F. 1994. The natural history of African colobines. Pp. 75

128 in A.G. Davis and J.F.
Oates, Eds. Colobine Monkeys: Their Ecol
ogy, Behaviour and Evolution. Cambridge:
Cambridge University Press.
An abstract in an abstract volume:
López

Torres, S. and Silcox, M.T. 2015
.
The biogeographic origin of major primate clades.
American Jo
urnal of Physical Anthropology 15
6 (Suppl.):
20
6.
An unpublished PhD dissertation:
Kirkpatrick, R.C. 1996. Ecology and behavior of the Yunnan snub

nosed langur
(
Rhinocolobus bieti
, Colobinae). Ph.D. Dissertation, University of California.
3
A web page:
Wund, M. and Myers, P. 2005. Mammalia, Animal Diversit
y Web. Accessed August
25,
201
6
.
http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/acco
unts/information/Mammalia.html
If no author is provided for a web

page, substitute the name of the webpage for the
author in your in

text referencing, and alphabetize with respect t
o that name in your
references cited list.
Suggested sources:
The following journals can be good starting points for researching your
essay
. All are available through the University Library Portal
(
https:
//utsc.library.utoronto.ca/
).
Evolutionary Anthropology
Journal of Human Evolution
American Journal of Physical Anthropology
American Journal of Human Biology
Current Anthropology
American Anthropologist
Nature
Science
Proceedings of the National
Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
While you are allowed to use websites as sources,
i
t is
strongly
recommended that
you use peer

reviewed journal articles as your main sources of information for your essay
.
Secondary
and tertiary sources
such as newspaper
s
, encyclopaedias, and popular science
magazines (e.g., Scientific American, National Geographic, New Scientist) tend to be less up
to date, and less reliable. Journal articles are also useful for their reference lists, which can
provide
follow

up resources and new “leads” on relevant information.
Alternatively, if you
have an article that is particularly relevant to your topic, you can do a
search in Google
Scholar
and click the
“cited
by

link
to see which other papers have cited your so
urce. This
can lead you to more recent perspectives on the topic in question.
On a similar note, you
should not be citing lecture material in your essays!
The purpose of having you write an
essay is to move beyond the lecture and textbook content, not to j
ust regurgitate what you
learned in class.
Notes on using the Internet to research your paper:
The Internet can be a tremendous
resource for the easy location of information on a huge range of topics. However, it is very
important to remember that there
is no quality control whatsoever about what is made into a
web page. This contrasts with the many levels of evaluation that occur before any book or
article is published. When using the Internet, it is important to be very critical of the source of
particu
lar assertions. Who is the author of the web page you are using? Is he or she an
academic, a student, or a crank? Is the information properly cited? Are the citations to
reputable sources (e.g., refere
ed publications), or questionable sources (e.g., other
web
pages)?
In other words BUYER BEWARE. If you rely on a website as a key reference to
your paper, and the information it contains is incorrect or out of date,
it will hurt your essay
grade.
In general
,
I would recommend that you use web pages only as
starting points to
provide you with places to look for more conventional reference sources.
4
Other formatting issues:
Please note that there are sections of the Essay Evaluation Guide
dedicated to style, spelling, and grammar

in other words, all of these
count towards your
grade. A particular formatting issue becomes apparent when working with taxonomic names.
Please follow these conventions whenever taxonomic names are used:
Genus names are both capitalized and italicized or underlined (e.g.,
Homo
)
The
trivial or species name is italicized or underlined but not capitalized (e.g.,
sapiens
)
Other formal taxonomic groupings are capitalized but not italicized or underlined (e.g.,
Hominidae)
Informal derivations of taxonomic group names are neither
capitalized nor italicized or
underlined (e.g., hominids)
Why is this important? When you get this kind of thing wrong, it communicates to
your reader that you are not well versed in the topic you are writing about, hurting your
credibility.
It is impor
tant to get in the habit of doing this correctly.
Students formatting
taxonomic names incorrectly can expect to receive a penalty.
2
You may use web pages, however, be aware
that
these are not peer

reviewed and
a
reliance on web pages will result in a lower mark.
Web pages should be referenced similarly,
but including the author of the webpage (if provided), the date the page was most recently
updated (if provided), and the name o
f the webpage. For example:
All mammals have hair at some point in their development (Myers, Class Mammalia, Animal
Diversity Web).
DO NOT USE FOOTNOTES OR ENDNOTES

USE OF THESE REFERENCING
METHODS WILL BE PENALIZED.
Your paper must include a section
entitled “References Cited”, which should include
all the sources referenced in your essay, listed in alphabetical order by the first letter of the
first authors’ last name. Do not number the references listed in this section
or use
abbreviations such as “
ibid”
. Do not include papers unless they are explicitly referenced in
the text. Follow these examples as to how references should be formatted in your References
Cited section.
Marks will be deducted for deviations from these styles
.
An article from a jou
rnal
:
Selig,
K.R.,
Sargis,
E.J.,
and
Silcox
, M.T
. 2019. Three

d
imensional
g
eometric
m
orphometric
a
nalysis of
t
reeshrew (Scandentia)
l
ower
m
olars: Insight into dental variation and
systematics. The Anatomical Record 302: 1154

1168.
A book:
Pough, F.H., Jani
s, C.M and Heiser, J.B. 2013. Vertebrate Life.
San Francisco, CA: Pearson
Education, Inc.
An article in an edited volume:
Oates, J.F. 1994. The natural history of African colobines. Pp. 75

128 in A.G. Davis and J.F.
Oates, Eds. Colobine Monkeys: Their Ecol
ogy, Behaviour and Evolution. Cambridge:
Cambridge University Press.
An abstract in an abstract volume:
López

Torres, S. and Silcox, M.T. 2015
.
The biogeographic origin of major primate clades.
American Jo
urnal of Physical Anthropology 15
6 (Suppl.):
20
6.
An unpublished PhD dissertation:
Kirkpatrick, R.C. 1996. Ecology and behavior of the Yunnan snub

nosed langur
(
Rhinocolobus bieti
, Colobinae). Ph.D. Dissertation, University of California.
3
A web page:
Wund, M. and Myers, P. 2005. Mammalia, Animal Diversit
y Web. Accessed August
25,
201
6
.
http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/acco
unts/information/Mammalia.html
If no author is provided for a web

page, substitute the name of the webpage for the
author in your in

text referencing, and alphabetize with respect t
o that name in your
references cited list.
Suggested sources:
The following journals can be good starting points for researching your
essay
. All are available through the University Library Portal
(
https:
//utsc.library.utoronto.ca/
).
Evolutionary Anthropology
Journal of Human Evolution
American Journal of Physical Anthropology
American Journal of Human Biology
Current Anthropology
American Anthropologist
Nature
Science
Proceedings of the National
Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
While you are allowed to use websites as sources,
i
t is
strongly
recommended that
you use peer

reviewed journal articles as your main sources of information for your essay
.
Secondary
and tertiary sources
such as newspaper
s
, encyclopaedias, and popular science
magazines (e.g., Scientific American, National Geographic, New Scientist) tend to be less up
to date, and less reliable. Journal articles are also useful for their reference lists, which can
provide
follow

up resources and new “leads” on relevant information.
Alternatively, if you
have an article that is particularly relevant to your topic, you can do a
search in Google
Scholar
and click the
“cited
by

link
to see which other papers have cited your so
urce. This
can lead you to more recent perspectives on the topic in question.
On a similar note, you
should not be citing lecture material in your essays!
The purpose of having you write an
essay is to move beyond the lecture and textbook content, not to j
ust regurgitate what you
learned in class.
Notes on using the Internet to research your paper:
The Internet can be a tremendous
resource for the easy location of information on a huge range of topics. However, it is very
important to remember that there
is no quality control whatsoever about what is made into a
web page. This contrasts with the many levels of evaluation that occur before any book or
article is published. When using the Internet, it is important to be very critical of the source of
particu
lar assertions. Who is the author of the web page you are using? Is he or she an
academic, a student, or a crank? Is the information properly cited? Are the citations to
reputable sources (e.g., refere
ed publications), or questionable sources (e.g., other
web
pages)?
In other words BUYER BEWARE. If you rely on a website as a key reference to
your paper, and the information it contains is incorrect or out of date,
it will hurt your essay
grade.
In general
,
I would recommend that you use web pages only as
starting points to
provide you with places to look for more conventional reference sources.
4
Other formatting issues:
Please note that there are sections of the Essay Evaluation Guide
dedicated to style, spelling, and grammar

in other words, all of these
count towards your
grade. A particular formatting issue becomes apparent when working with taxonomic names.
Please follow these conventions whenever taxonomic names are used:
Genus names are both capitalized and italicized or underlined (e.g.,
Homo
)
The
trivial or species name is italicized or underlined but not capitalized (e.g.,
sapiens
)
Other formal taxonomic groupings are capitalized but not italicized or underlined (e.g.,
Hominidae)
Informal derivations of taxonomic group names are neither
capitalized nor italicized or
underlined (e.g., hominids)
Why is this important? When you get this kind of thing wrong, it communicates to
your reader that you are not well versed in the topic you are writing about, hurting your
credibility.
It is impor
tant to get in the habit of doing this correctly.
Students formatting
taxonomic names incorrectly can expect to receive a penalty.

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