1. Design Comparison: The final component will require you to locate one (1) other empirical study of a similar research question to yours, and compare your research design to theirs. This section should be 2-3 pages in length. Please consider the following:
a. Their Design: What sort of research design did this other study use? Is it experimental, quasi-experimental, or non-experimental design? Longitudinal or cross-sectional? What is it about their design that makes it these things? Here, you need to explain what your design is and why.
b. Their Sampling: Describe the sample the other study uses, how did they generate their sample?
c. Differences: How is your study different from this other study? Do these differences represent improvements, or weaknesses? Here, you should specifically talk about possible threats to validity and/or criteria for causality.
The research question guiding this literature review is: What is the effect of directed hotspot policing on high crime areas? Using scholarly articles and providing a literature review about the author’s programs will conclude what works or what may be promising regarding policing in high crime areas. With this said, the author’s findings may create a foundation that can be used for future research. The effect of policing on high crime areas is an essential question because it remains understudied. One of the programs used to achieve this research is Crime Solutions, which provides reliable information with various methods of finding whether policing affects high crime areas.
The first scholarly article provides reliable information with three methods of finding whether policing affects high crime areas (Weisburd et al., 2017). The article acknowledges the most effective and least effective forms of patrolling that impacted the crime rates in high crime areas. The article examines policing differences such as the implementation of random policing, no policing, and high-intensity hot spot policing. The program was created to find out which of the following policing styles had the lowest crime rates. The way this experiment was conducted was that two-thirds of police officers were assigned to random patrol. On the other hand, the other one-third was set to stay within high crime areas for half of their time while on duty (Weisburd et al., 2017). This implementation of policing was done under the low-intensity policing. Moreover, the high-intensity policing assigned half of the police officers to patrol randomly while the other half stayed in high crime areas one hundred percent of the time. The importance of using scholarly literature, such as this article, is to provide valid information. Scholarly literature also contains experts in the field. The authors found that random patrol and no patrol had the highest crime rates, while high-intensity hot spots policing had the lowest crime rates. The program suggested that policing in high crime areas did affect the reduction of crime. The second article describes a program similar to the first article; however, this program uses foot patrolling, problem-oriented policing, and offender-focused policing.
Crime Solutions reviews programs and practices based on a meta-analysis and reviewed by two certified reviewers using scoring instruments (Office of Justice Program, n.d.). With this said, this ensures that their programs and practices provide legitimate data and factual information based on their results. Allowing researchers to use their work for further research knowing they follow ethical guidelines. Crime Solutions offer various methods for the effectiveness of policing in high crime areas. One of the programs mentioned is Operation Safe Streets, which targets high-crime areas. Their goal is to improve public order by disrupting drug markets and preventing violent crimes through local policing (Office of Justice Program, n.d.). High drug activity was chosen for reducing crime with the use of crime data and arrest data, among a few; the Philadelphia Police Department identified various locations to target. The operation required six hundred officers’ help and was put to watch high crime areas seven days a week and twenty-four-hour supervision (Office of Justice Program, n.d.). Operation Safe Streets stationed police officers in corners to prevent drug dealers from selling and distributing drugs. The operation proved to be effective because crimes decreased; however, the declines were not statistically significant (Office of Justice Program, n.d.).
The second article describes a program similar to the first article; however, this program uses foot patrolling, problem-oriented policing, and offender-focused policing. The article examines policing tactics that reduce crime rates in hot spot areas. The program was created to determine which of the three policing methods decreased crime rates (Groff et al., 2014). The authors conducted this experiment by implementing foot patrol, which was the easiest to use because it did not require training (Groff et al., 2014). On the other hand, Offender-focused policing and oriented policing were more difficult because police officers needed more coordination and training. The experiment involves professionals conducting the experiment, which indicates this a scholarly source. Each tactic ran twelve weeks minimum and twenty-four weeks maximum at target areas (Groff et al., 2014). The authors found that foot patrol and problem-solving policing failed to reduce crime in high crime areas. The offender-focused policing had the lowest crime with forty-two reduction in violent crimes and a fifty percent reduction in violent felonies.
Crime Solutions aims to assist decision making by gathering information on a specific topic such as the effectiveness of policing in high crime areas and reviewing the existing evaluation. Based on the evidence they collect from their research, Crime Solutions dictate whether the technique was effective, promising, or no effect. The program aims to provide analysis of what works or what may be promising because it allows for different methods, some being more effective than others (Office of Justice Program, n.d.). There is no specific problem addressed by this program; as mentioned earlier, Crime Solutions contain considerable research regarding justice-related programs. Among many, operation Safe Street is an operation designed to deter drug distribution and violent crimes in high crime areas. With the evidence gathered, the operation was labeled as promising because drug and violent crimes were reduced in regions targeted by the Philadelphia Police Department.
The article addresses the community’s opinion on police engagement in high crime areas. The research suggested that residents would report crime and have positive interactions with the police. The way the authors executed this experiment was by identifying high crime areas using reports and calls. Police officers were then assigned to those areas, and surveys were mailed to households immediately after their arrival ended (Kahn et al., 2019). The community returned about thirteen percent of the mail with feedback. The authors found that people who lived in intervention areas provided a more positive approach toward the police officers. On the other hand, people who were viewed as unfavorable did not offer feedback on community attitudes and police legitimacy (Kahn et al., 2019.). Another program mentioned in the Crime Solutions database is the use of surveillance cameras in high crime areas. The goal of the program is to reduce police response and increase the chances of catching a criminal. However, based on the evidence, Crime Solutions labeled the results as ineffective because auto theft decreased, but other crimes such as shootings remained the same.
The objectives the authors focused on was crime intervention in high crime areas. The authors examined the police and whether their actions caused displacement or diffusion (Braga et al., 2012). Twenty-five tests were conducted using police interventions. A meta-analysis was used to measure the effects of crime prevention effects (Braga et al., 2012). The authors also used random-effects models to get an accurate measure of effect sizes. The results suggested that police actions in high crime areas do not cause crime displacement; however, police presence may diffuse areas in targeted areas. The research gives directions for future research because it may alter a crime with police presence.
The final article examines the effectiveness of hot spot policing, where security guards patrolled a specific area to reduce violence accidents (Forgner et al., 2013). The method in which this experiment was conducted was by the implementation of patrolling during nights Friday-Saturday from 8 pm- 4 am. The security guards patrolled late-night establishments and were able to intervene outside of those establishments. The authors found out that the intervention had no effects; however, crime changes decreased when security guards adapted a stricter hot spot policing approach (Forgner et al., 2013).
Research Design and Rationale
The research design that will be used for this literature narrative will be a post-test, only a quasi-experimental study comparing the number of reported crimes in high crime areas. More specifically, comparing the high crime areas with and without the implementation of police. The study will seek to find whether police implementation has an effect on high crime areas and whether crime rates increase, decrease, or remain the same. The use of a quasi-experimental study is important because police officers are not randomly assigned (Schutt & Bachman, 2014). As mentioned before this design will only focused on post-test only. The independent variable is the implementation of police tactics in order to decrease crime in targeted areas. The dependent variable for this experiment will be the areas targeted labeled as high crime areas. A quasi-experimental design compares a group similar to the experimental group using non-randomization. The way a quasi-experimental design would work by having a group without police implementation while having a group with the implementation of police.
At the end of the experiment, I will use a post-test to measure the outcome of my experiment (the crime rates where police were assigned) and compare it to the other group which had no police implementation. Hopefully, this will show the effect the police implementation had on high crime areas. More importantly, show whether policing increased, decreased crime rates.
The reason for using a quasi-experimental study is because it strives for showing the causation of an interval and its outcome. Another good note is that quasi-experimental study also provides more generalizable results than any other experiment (Schutt & Bachman.2014). A quasi-experimental design may be cheaper to conduct and easier to carry out than a true experiment (Schutt & Bachman.2014). Additionally, ethical guidelines may be followed with a quasi-experimental design because subjects wouldn’t be assigned to different conditions or not having enough to assign them properly without harm. As mentioned, a quasi-experimental design saves the researcher more time than conducting a true experiment (Schutt & Bachman.2014). Quasi-experimental designs can be done in more natural procedures which can lead to a more understanding of the context (Schutt & Bachman.2014). According to Schutt & Bachman quasi-experiments are not better or worse than other experiments. However, quasi-experimental designs have concerns for threats to validity (Schutt & Bachman.2014). One of them being selection bias because a quasi-experimental study depends on a non-randomization strategy.
My experimental design will focus on people with criminal records living in high crime areas that will either have police officers on the watch while others do not see whether police implementation has an effect. This study will focus on individuals with a criminal record with a correlation to theft, drug, rape, arson, etc. I hope to make generalizations and draw conclusions from people with criminal records with an age of 18 years and over and who have re-offended within the same area more than two times. With this said, criminals within the United States. I will draw my sample for this study by using CrimeReports which is a map-based site and gives information regarding crimes covering a wide range of incidents. CrimeReports gives details about the crime that had been committed as well as giving you the option of contacting a local law enforcement agency who handled the case. The sample size will depend on the number of individuals within an area of high crime rates. I will use a non-probability sample because this study focuses on a small population in this case people who commit crimes in areas of high rates of crime. Random sampling is not being used therefore this research calls for an intensive investigation of a population (Schutt & Bachman.2014). This sampling method will prove adequate for this experiment because it focuses on one setting and will probably not have a list in which we can select many individuals therefore being able to choose people who consistently offend is the more reliable option (Schutt & Bachman.2014). Additionally, we are only counting those individuals who are caught committing a crime therefore, producing a random sample may be difficult for this experiment (Schutt & Bachman.2014).
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