Discussion board responses

Reply to 3 classmate posts. This is a first person conversation. Please do not repeat what they already have said.
100 words each.

Post 1. By Cade

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Question: Covid and privacy….

Research some of this issues and trends with the coronavirus and privacy. What are your thoughts in the balance between fighting the spread of coronavirus and personal privacy?

Answer: Many ongoing controversies seem to trail in the wake of Covid-19, some more major than others. The attack on masks, enforcement of lockdowns and even the illness itself has been called into question by fringe news outlets. Many of the issues facing current Americans are very obviously not only caused by our current global pandemic, but from years of built-up neglect and mishandling. Inability to pay rent, food insecurity and unemployment are all issues that have only been exacerbated by the Pandemic, but it has also revealed the true disappointing results of many of the laws, regulations and organizations built to directly counter these issues. One of the issues exacerbated by the pandemic is of course privacy. Since the early 2000s privacy has been at the forefront of Americans minds, only compounded by the Patriot act and further expansions of private data reserves in the name of security.

Unfortunately privacy in the face of the Pandemic has truly changed what privacy really is. Contact tracing is now a necessity, along with the need to reveal positive tests to those closest to you and workplaces. The discussion can no longer solely be personal privacy or safety because it is now not only personal safety on the line, and the life of another person can rest fully on the response to a positive Covid test. At this crossroads we need to realize the distinction between our personal safety and the life or death of those around us.

Post 2. By Blayne

Question: The text discusses whistle-blowing. Other than Snowden, have their been other cases of whistle-blowing? What happened? In your opinion is what the person (or persons) did ethical? Why or why not? One could even discuss the ethics of whistle-blowing…. Is it ethical? How so or how not? Make sure to include your sources.

Answer: Whistle-blowing has occurred many times both before and after Snowden. The case that attracted my attention is one involving Pfizer who is coming out with a much needed Covid vaccine. The case was that of a whistleblower alerting authorities to the fact Pfizer was advertising a drug called Bextra alluding that it had additional uses byond what it was approved for by the FDA. Bextra was approved for limited doses to help with arthritis and menstrual pain, Pfizer pushed the drug for uses outside of its scope and dose limit. Pfizer was taken to court and found guilty resulting in them having to pay the settlement totaling 2.3 billion dollars. The whistleblower in this case did the right thing in reporting the company’s actions. The use of the drug Bextra can result in complications ranging from heart attack and stroke to pulmonary embolisms. These are serious side effects of taking this drug which chances increase when it was taken beyond it recommended dose limit.

Whistle-blowing I believe is ethical to the extent that it draws attention to something that is a danger or actions that affect our civil liberties. We are always told as children to report the wrongdoing of others to people in charge and that doing so is the right thing to do. Somewhere along the way to adulthood we forget that lesson or we begin to fear reprisal from those that are in the wrong. Edmund Burke states “The only thing necessary for the triumph of evil is for good men to do nothing.” for which he is right, if we are witness to a wrongdoing or have information on something that endangers others we have a moral obligation to report it to those who can correct it.

Refrences

Bextra whistleblower case leads to record-setting Pfizer settlement

Post 3. By Eli

Question: What is a Maximum Transmission Unit? Can any problems arise if MTUs differ on both ends of a connection?

Answer: Within networking, an MTU, maximum transmission unit is the maximum size of a data packet that a device on the network will accept. This metric can be different depending on the technology and specifications of the technology within a given network. One device might only except a packet of data that is up to 1400 bytes, while another device might accept packets at sizes up to 1500 bytes. Cloudflare used a great analogy for this, comparing an MTU to the maximum height listed for interstate bridges and tunnels. In this analogy, trucks and other vehicles that exceed that height obviously cannot navigate through or under that area, and in the same way, if a data packet reaches a point in a network in which the MTU is 1400 bytes but it is 1500 bytes, it cannot go forward.

However, there is a solution to packets exceeding an MTU. If a packet exceeds the size, it can be divided in a way that it can fit thorough that part of the network. This is called fragmentation, and it also rebuilds any packets which had to be broken up once they reach their destination.

Most of the time, MTU pertains to layer 3 packets in reference to the OSI model, or the Network layer. It is important to know that data packets can use multiple protocols, with a different header for them, in order to understand MTU is used on packets following the IP or internet Protocol. Because of the process of fragmentation, it can cause latency and congestion issues in networking, making it a best practice to try and avoid it.

If the MTU’s on ends of a transmission are different, it could result in the full transmission failing. The path a data packet takes can cross over numerous devices, and as stated, MTU can vary, as low as 127bytes for IoT. (Thongchai Chuachan1). Problems occurring regarding differing MTU sizes can be called MTU mismatch. This report contains some proposals for solving these issues, like IPv6 Path MTU discovery, a process of finding the minimum MTU on a transmission path.

https://www.atlantis-press.com/journals/ijndc/125936177/view

https://www.cloudflare.com/learning/network-layer/what-is-mtu/

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