Medical Apartheid

Essay 4: Research Project
Persuasive Essay Using Nine or More Sources
(1000 Points)

Writing Assignment
Using nine or more good sources—at least four of which must be scholarly sources—write a persuasive essay of eight to ten pages (not counting the works cited). Papers of this type either provide an adequately detailed, specific solution to the issue or explore causes that have been ignored or undervalued. Essays not meeting the page count/source count/source type specifications will automatically fail, as will papers which neglect cited paragraphs for the opposition or refutals of opposition reasons.

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This is not a report or some five-paragraph essay. The audience knows the topic well; they act. The task is to change their actions or opinions (persuade). Use varied support and try to be objective as you research the topic, but support a clear, persuasive thesis claim that’s both arguable and provable.

For this paper, you must create a research question whose answer is likely to become your thesis claim. Focus mainly on logical appeals and avoid fallacies. Your paper should investigate at least three to four opposing reasons, three to four supporting reasons, and must include refutals for each opposing reason. Include well-placed refutals of one side’s reasoning. Refutals are appropriate, detailed “comebacks” or counterarguments to opposition reasons.

• Papers that are plagiarized will not be considered as research papers and may result in failure for the course.
• No .com websites are allowed unless I know about them beforehand. Clear them with me through an email to If you include those without permission, they will be ignored.
• Get varied sources for the paper.
• Avoid overuse of a single CQ Researcher article.
• No sources from the Opposing Viewpoints database may be used. Remember, though, that you must include cited coverage of both the opposition reasons and the refutals.
• Also check with me beforehand for each .net, .org, or .gov source you wish to include.

MLA Format
Again, make sure you follow MLA style rules. These can be found both in Bb and in the College Writing Handbook.

• Write to persuade
• Give readers the information needed to understand your subject.
• Use description, narration, definition, comparison/contrast to develop argument.
• In an objective essay, so limit the use of “I” and “you.”
• Write with a formal tone; avoid contractions or a chatty, conversational tone.
Assume your audience has familiarity with the subject and with each side’s reasons. Do more than just point out the obvious to them. Your audience includes those who disagree with you or doubt the validity of your connections. It will even include those who don’t see why the topic matters.


• With so many sources, it’ll be even more important that you figure out a system of
notetaking so that you avoid plagiarism. Cite as you write. If in doubt, cite.
• You might create a file with working bibliography information—underneath works cited entries for sources, include quotes you might use. You can then cut and paste these into a draft. If you do this, still interpret what you use
• Placement and fair use of “the other side” will be important

• Carefully cite your sources, as usual. Include strong interpretation of any quote’s specifics. Citing carefully means subordinating the quote to your purposes, so break up long quotes.
• Establish the authority of those you are quoting or paraphrasing.
• Only quote when you wish to capture the particular flavor of the speaker’s words. Otherwise, you should be paraphrasing or summarizing. To avoid plagiarism, you must change the sentence structure and the words of the source. You still cite paraphrases and summaries. You must interpret them, too.
• I expect you to break up long areas of source use, and to interpret more strongly.
• In most cases, begin and end paragraphs on your own.
• Relate the source material to your topic, or to your thesis throughout your essay.

Source 1
Title Medical Apartheid: The Dark History of Medical Experimentation on Black Americans from Colonial Times to the Present
Author Harriet A. Washington
Publisher Knopf Doubleday Publishing Group, 2008
ISBN 076792939X, 9780767929394
Source 2
Hornblum, Allen M. Sentenced to Science : One Black Man’s Story of Imprisonment in America . University Park, Pa: Pennsylvania State University Press, 2007. Print.
Source 3
Whitman, Daniel. Outsmarting Apartheid An Oral History of South Africa’s Cultural and Educational Exchange with the United States, 1960–1999 . Albany, New York: SUNY Press, 2014. Print.
Source 4
Hoberman, John. “Medical Apartheid, Internal Colonialism, and the Task of American Psychiatry.” Black and Blue. University of California Press, 2012. Web.
Source 5
George, Blaauw. “Doctor Retention and Distribution in Post-Apartheid South Africa: Tracking Medical Graduates (2007–2011) from One University.” Human resources for health 17.1 (2019): 100–100. Web.
Source 6

Medical Apartheid

Source 7

Medical Apartheid – Science-Based Medicine
Harriet Hall, MD also known as The SkepDoc, is a retired family physician who writes about pseudoscience and questionable medical practices. She received her BA and MD from the University of Washington, did her internship in the Air Force (the second female ever to do so), and was the first female graduate of the Air Force family practice residency at Eglin Air Force Base.
Source 8
Source 9

Unequal treatment (Published 2007)

Harriet Washington investigates the exploitation of African-Americans in medical research.


Create a working bibliography.

Working bibliographies are glorified works cited pages, consisting of a MLA works cited entries and brief summaries of how each source will get used and why it is credible. Writers must have at least nine sources–four of which must be scholarly. Go one by one through the sources, then, and don’t number your alphabetized entries.

You will need to include both a works cited entry and a short summary of the source’s usefulness to get credit here. You may use notes or fragments when summarizing how you’ll use the source. You may not pull in wording from the source’s abstract or unquoted quotes.

The working bibliography is required for Essay 4 to be considered.

Sample Works Cited (Blackboard may mess with the hanging indent spacing):

Lansford, Jennifer E., et al. “A Public Health Perspective on School Dropout and Adult Outcomes: A Prospective Study of Risk and Protective Factors From Age 5 to 27 Years.” Journal of Adolescent Health, vol. 58, no. 6, June 2016, pp. 652–658. EBSCOhost, doi:10.1016/j.jadohealth.2016.01.014.

I will use this source in my body paragraph. This source will allow me to show how high school dropouts are later affected in their adulthood. I will use for my side of the argument to prove that the dropout age should be higher, because of all the difficulties such as criminal activity, trouble with keeping a job, and health issues (Lansford).

Manlove, Jennifer. “The Influence of High School Dropout and School Disengagement on the Risk of School-Age Pregnancy.” Journal of Research on Adolescence (Lawrence Erlbaum), vol. 8, no. 2, Apr. 1998, pp. 187–220. EBSCOhost,

I will use this source later in my essay in one of the body paragraphs. The main point of this essay is to show the relation between high school dropouts and teenage pregnancy. I can use this to my advantage to show how the dropout age should be higher, I can also use this source for the other side of the argument to show how teenagers can get pregnant even if they are not dropouts.

You May Wish to Ask/Answer

How am I going to use your source?
Where in the paper might I use this source?
Does this source have information on my side, the other side(s), or both?
What major point will information from this source serve? Is the information current? Are the author’s points logical?
What bias does my source have?
What would readers need to know about where/how this information was derived?
Why is the author credible? She is credible because____________.

Answering questions like this is an important part of the working bibliography. I expect more than a sentence per summary for each of the sources, as you must show how you’ll be using that source in the paper.

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