a. Must be on a topic covered in Western Civ. I, from the Sumerians, up to and including
the Late Medieval era (1400s AD.).
b. The topic and thesis must be approved by me.
a. Your paper must not be mostly a chronicling of events. It should be concentrating on
proving a point (your thesis). Your paper must be mostly presenting evidence and
arguments to try to prove your thesis.
a. The body of your paper should be 3 full pages – minimum, double spaced, in Times New
Roman, 12 pt!!!
b. This should not include the title page, endnotes, works cited/bibliography, etc.
c. Anything below the minimum will be a failure. Do not shoot for the minimum. It could
effect your grade.
d. You should have a cover page. The body of your work should start at the very top of the
next sheet, followed by your endnote page, then the works cited page.
4. ORGANIZATION OF PARAGRAPHS
a. The first paragraph must clearly state your thesis (ie. the point that you wish to prove),
without resorting to personal references to yourself or the reader (“I”, “you” or “we”).
b. For the sake of this exercise/paper, don’t be “wishy-washy”. Take a strong stand in your
c. In the intro paragraph, speak in general terms and do not go into details about specific
points of evidence. If you wish to just briefly refer to each major point of evidence, either
mention all of them or none of them.
d. Each of your paragraphs (except the intro paragraph, concluding paragraph and
concession paragraph) should focus on discussing and proving one point of evidence.
e. Include a concession paragraph, where you recognize some arguments against your
f. The last paragraph (the concluding paragraph) should sum up your paper, by reviewing
your points of evidence and making some final conclusions.
g. Avoid using quotes in your intro and concluding paragraphs.
5. THE PURPOSE OF A PARAGRAPH
a. By the very nature of a paragraph, all the sentences in a paragraph should focus on one
topic. In a paper like this, in which you are trying to prove a thesis, each of your
paragraphs will each focus on discussing one point of evidence in regard to your overall
topic and thesis.
b. The first sentence (or “intro” sentence) of each paragraph should basically introduce the
topic for the rest of the paragraph. Do not go off on tangents, stay on topic.
c. In the past, some students will begin one topic in a paragraph, go on to another topic in
the same paragraph, then return to the first topic in a later paragraph. Do not do this!
When introducing a subtopic in the first sentence in a paragraph, discuss it thoroughly in
that paragraph (beat it to death) and then when there is nothing else to say, begin a new
subtopic in the next paragraph.
d. Do not use a quote in the intro sentence of each paragraph.
a. Use traditional endnotes, not footnotes, based on the Chicago Manual of Style (See
below). Endnotes are basically footnotes, that are not used at the bottom of the page, but
are all placed on the page immediately after the body of a paper and right before the
“works cited” page, which should be the last page of your paper.
FOLLOW THE INSTRUCTIONS on the endnotes TO THE LAST PUNCTUATION
b. You should have about 12 endnotes or more. You should have no less than 12 endnotes.
c. If you use someone’s exact words (even if it is half a sentence or a phrase), you must use
quotation marks and a endnote number at the end of the sentence or paragraph that is
“borrowed”. Quotes should immediately be followed, at the end of the sentence, by an
d. If you use an author’s ideas or concepts, but do not use his exact words, you still need to
document your source with an endnote – without using quotation marks.
e. Do not just use quotation marks when the author uses quotation marks (when he is
quoting someone). If you also use the author’s own words, you still have to use quotation
f. Failure to give credit where credit, with endnotes, is due is PLAGIARISM.
g. You should endnote liberally, but you should limit the number of direct quotes, so that
most of your paper is not quotes.
h. Most of your endnotes should not just come from one or two sources. Your endnotes
should reflect a healthy mix of your sources.
i. Each endnote should refer back to no more than 2 pages!
J. Each endnote number in the body of your paper is used once. You do not assign one
number to each source. So if you use one source for the 1st two notes the 1st endnote
reference is labeled “1”. If the same source is used for the second endnote, it is now labeled
7. WORKS CITED (BIBLIOGRAPHY)- This should be the last page of your paper after
the endnote page or pages.
a. You should use a minimum of 3 print books and one internet source.
b. Do not use textbooks or encyclopedias, either in the form of traditional books or
electronic sources, like Wikipedia or Britannica.
c. The bibliography/works cited page should include just sources that you refer to in your
endnotes. It should not include a list of books or internet sites if there is no evidence that
you used them.
d. The works cited page should be the very last page of your paper. Your endnote page, or
pages, should appear right before your works cited/bibliography page.
8. MISCELLANEOUS – BUT VERY IMPORTANT!
a. If you turn in your topic late, it may result in 5 points off.
b. If your change your topic late, it may lead to 5 points off.
c. If you turn in your paper late, it may result in 5 points off for each school day late.
d. A hardcopy should be handed in to me in class, the day it is due. e. Don’t end sentences
with a preposition.
f. Don’t use any novels, even history novels. They are basically works of fiction.
9. Proofread your paper after you are done, to find any mistakes either grammatical or in
terms of content.
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